Comparison of Physical And Physiological Profiles Between Elite Freestyle Men And Women Wrestlers


  • Gökhan Deliceoğlu Gökhan Deliceoğlu. Gazi University, Faculty of Sport Sciences
  • Erkan Tortu Trabzon University, Faculty of Sport Sciences
  • Ali Keleş Selcuk University
  • Aslıhan Nefes Çakar Center of Athlete Training and Health Research, The Ministry of Youth and Sports
  • Habib Özsoy Özsoy Center of Athlete Training and Health Research, The Ministry of Youth and Sports
  • Tuba Atalay Atalay Center of Athlete Training and Health Research, The Ministry of Youth and Sports



anaerobic power, aerobic power, isokinetic strength, isometric strength, reactive agility


This study aims to compare the physical and physiological profiles between elite men and women wrestlers of free style category. The research group consist of twenty-nine men and twenty-one women freestyle wrestlers who camped for performance tests at the Turkish Olympic Preparation Center in Ankara 2 months before the European Wrestling Championship in Budapest on March 28-April 3, 2022.  Subjects performed the leg and arm Wingate anaerobic test (anaerobic power and capacity), VO2max (aerobic endurance), Reactive agility, isokinetic and isometric strength test. The results showed that Lower Extremity anaerobic power obtained from men, knee flexor at VO2max, 60°/s and 180°/s peak torque, isometric force values of arm and trunk extensor muscles, are higher than in women (p<0.05). In contrast, upper extremity anaerobic power values seem to be similar (p>0.05).  As a result, it can be said that the endurance capacity, isometric, and isokinetic strength parameters are more effective than the force parameter in gender.  These results can be used by coaches, strength and conditioning specialists, and sport scientists to create a comprehensive physical and physiological profile of wrestlers that will help them adapt their training programs.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Abellán, A., Pallarés, J., Gullón, J., Otegui, X., Baños, V., & Moreno, A. (2010). Anaerobic factors to predict wrestling performance. Cuadernos De Psicología Del Deporte, 10, 17-23.

Brooks, L. J., & Strohl, K. P. (1989). Sex and race differences in the development of lung function. The American review of respiratory disease, 140(3), 855.

Brown, L. E. (2000). Isokinetics in human performance: Human Kinetics.

Callan, S., Brunner, D., Devolve, K., Hesson, J., Wilber, R., & Kearney, J. (1998). Physiological profiles of elite freestyle wrestlers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 30(5), 34.

Chaabene, H., Negra, Y., Bouguezzi, R., Mkaouer, B., Franchini, E., Julio, U., & Hachana, Y. (2017). Physical and physiological attributes of wrestlers: an update. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 31(5), 1411-1442.

Clark, B. C., Manini, T. M., Thé, D. J., Doldo, N. A., & Ploutz-Snyder, L. L. (2003). Gender differences in skeletal muscle fatigability are related to contraction type and EMG spectral compression. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(6), 2263-2272.

Demirkan, E., Koz, M., Kutlu, M., & Favre, M. (2015). Comparison of physical and physiological profiles in elite and amateur young wrestlers. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(7), 1876-1883.

Dirnberger, J., Wiesinger, H.-P., Kösters, A., & Müller, E. (2012). Reproducibility for isometric and isokinetic maximum knee flexion and extension measurements using the IsoMed 2000-dynamometer. Isokinetics and exercise science, 20(3), 149-153.

Dominelli, P. B., Render, J. N., Molgat‐Seon, Y., Foster, G. E., Romer, L. M., & Sheel, A. W. (2015). Oxygen cost of exercise hyperpnoea is greater in women compared with men. The Journal of physiology, 593(8), 1965-1979.

Düking, P., Born, D.-P., & Sperlich, B. (2016). The SpeedCourt: reliability, usefulness, and validity of a new method to determine change-of-direction speed. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 11(1), 130-134.

Falgairette, G., Billaut, F., Giacomoni, M., Ramdani, S., & Boyadjian, A. (2004). Effect of inertia on performance and fatigue pattern during repeated cycle sprints in males and females. International journal of sports medicine, 25(03), 235-240.

García-Pallarés, J., López-Gullón, J. M., Muriel, X., Díaz, A., & Izquierdo, M. (2011). Physical fitness factors to predict male Olympic wrestling performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(8), 1747-1758.

Gierczuk, D., Hübner-Woźniak, E., & Długołęcka, B. (2012). Influence of training on anaerobic power and capacity of upper and lower limbs in young greco-roman wrestlers. Biology of sport, 29(3), 235-239.

Gür, H., Gransberg, L., VanDyke, D., Knutsson, E., & Larsson, L. (2003). Relationship between in vivo muscle force at different speeds of isokinetic movements and myosin isoform expression in men and women. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 88(6), 487-496.

Hamilton, L. D., van Anders, S. M., Cox, D. N., & Watson, N. V. (2009). The effect of competition on salivary testosterone in elite female athletes. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 4(4), 538-542.

Hazir, T., & Kosar, N. S. (2007). Assessment of gender differences in maximal anaerobic power by ratio scaling and allometric scaling. Isokinetics and exercise science, 15(4), 253-261.

Horswill, C. A. (1992). Applied physiology of amateur wrestling. Sports Medicine, 14(2), 114-143.

Houweling, T. A., Head, A., & Hamzeh, M. A. (2009). Validity of isokinetic testing for previous hamstring injury detection in soccer players. Isokinetics and exercise science, 17(4), 213-220.

Hübner-Wozniak, E., Kosmol, A., Lutoslawska, G., & Bem, E. (2004). Anaerobic performance of arms and legs in male and female free style wrestlers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 7(4), 473-480.

Isik, O., Cicioglu, H. I., Gul, M., & Alpay, C. B. (2017). Development of the wrestling competition analysis form according to the latest competition rules. International Journal of Wrestling Science, 7(1-2), 41-45.

Kraemer, W. J., Vescovi, J. D., & Dixon, P. (2004). The physiological basis of wrestling: Implications for conditioning programs. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 26(2), 10-15.

Krivickas, L. S., Suh, D., Wilkins, J., Hughes, V. A., Roubenoff, R., & Frontera, W. R. (2001). Age-and gender-related differences in maximum shortening velocity of skeletal muscle fibers. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation, 80(6), 447-455.

Kruszewski, A., Cherkashin, I., Kruszewski, M., Cherkashina, E., & Tomczak, A. (2021). Differences between technical activities used by male and female wrestlers competing in Seniors European Wrestling Championships (Roma, 10-16 February 2020). Archives of Budo Science of Martial Arts and Extreme Sports, 17(1), 109-117.

López-González, D. E., & Miarka, B. (2013). Reliability of a new time-motion analysis model based on technical-tactical interactions for wrestling competition. International Journal of Wrestling Science, 3(1), 21-34.

Maria Lopez-Gullon, J., Muriel, X., Dolores Torres-Bonete, M., Izquierdo, M., & Garcia-Pallares, J. (2011). Physical fitness differences between Freestyle and Greco-Roman elite wrestlers. Archives of Budo, 7(4), 217-225.

McGuigan, M. R., Winchester, J. B., & Erickson, T. (2006). The importance of isometric maximum strength in college wrestlers. Journal of sports science & medicine, 5(CSSI), 108.

Mirzaei, B., Curby, D., & Rahmani-Nia, L. N. (2011). The relationship between flexibility, speed and agility measures of successful wrestlers. Kinaithropomety. UK (Inpress).

Mirzaei, B., Curby, D. G., Barbas, I., & Lotfi, N. (2011a). Anthropometric and physical fitness traits of four-time World Greco-Roman wrestling champion in relation to national norms: A case study. Journal of Human sport and Exercise, 6(2), 406-413.

Mirzaei, B., Curby, D. G., Barbas, I., & Lotfi, N. (2011b). Physical fitness measures of cadet wrestlers. International Journal of Wrestling Science, 1(1), 63-66.

Mirzaei, B., Curby, D. G., Rahmani-Nia, F., & Moghadasi, M. (2009). Physiological profile of elite Iranian junior freestyle wrestlers. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(8), 2339-2344.

Mirzaei, B., Ghahremani Moghaddam, M., & Alizaee Yousef Abadi, H. (2017). Analysis of energy systems in Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestlers who participated in the 2015 and 2016 world championships. International Journal of Wrestling Science, 7(1-2), 35-40.

Molgat-Seon, Y., Peters, C. M., & Sheel, A. W. (2018). Sex-differences in the human respiratory system and their impact on resting pulmonary function and the integrative response to exercise. Current Opinion in Physiology, 6, 21-27.

Nagle, F. J., Morgan, W. P., Hellickson, R. O., Serfass, R. C., & Alexander, J. F. (1975). Spotting success traits in Olympic contenders. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 3(12), 31-34.

Özbay, S., & Ulupınar, S. (2022). Strength-power tests are more effective when performed after exhaustive exercise in discrimination between top-elite and elite wrestlers. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 36(2), 448-454.

Pallarés, J. G., López-Gullón, J. M., Torres-Bonete, M. D., & Izquierdo, M. (2012). Physical fitness factors to predict female Olympic wrestling performance and sex differences. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(3), 794-803.

Rasch, P. J., & Brant, J. W. (1957). Measurements of pulmonary function in United States olympic free style wrestlers. Research Quarterly. American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 28(3), 279-287.

Ratamess, N. A. (2011). Strength and conditioning for grappling sports. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 33(6), 18-24.

Rezasoltani, A., Ahmadi, A., Nehzate-Khoshroh, M., Forohideh, F., & Ylinen, J. (2005). Cervical muscle strength measurement in two groups of elite Greco-Roman and free style wrestlers and a group of non-athletic subjects. British journal of sports medicine, 39(7), 440-443.

Semmler, J. G., Kutzscher, D. V., & Enoka, R. M. (1999). Gender differences in the fatigability of human skeletal muscle. Journal of Neurophysiology, 82(6), 3590-3593.

Sharratt, M., & Cipriano, N. (1987). Physical/physiological testing in wrestling: rationale and application. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the FILA 75th Anniversary Conference.

Steidl-Müller, L., Hildebrandt, C., Müller, E., Fink, C., & Raschner, C. (2018). Limb symmetry index in competitive alpine ski racers: Reference values and injury risk identification according to age-related performance levels. Journal of sport and health science, 7(4), 405-415.

Thomas, R. E., & Zamanpour, K. (2018). lnjuries in wrestling: systematic review. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 46(2), 168-196.

Tsuyama, K., Yamamoto, Y., Fujimoto, H., Adachi, T., Nakazato, K., & Nakajima, H. (2001). Comparison of the isometric cervical extension strength and a cross-sectional area of neck extensor muscles in college wrestlers and judo athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 84(6), 487-491.

Utter, A. C., O'BRYANT, H. S., Haff, G. G., & Trone, G. A. (2002). Physiological profile of an elite freestyle wrestler preparing for competition: a case study. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 16(2), 308-315.

Yoon, J. (2002). Physiological profiles of elite senior wrestlers. Sports Medicine, 32(4), 225-233.

Yoon, J. R. (2012). Comparisons of anaerobic performance and isokinetic strength in Korean and Japanese female collegiate wrestlers. International Journal of Wrestling Science, 2(2), 86-92.

Zi-Hong, H., Lian-Shi, F., Hao-Jie, Z., Kui-Yuan, X., Feng-Tang, C., Da-Lang, T., . . . Fleck, S. J. (2013). Physiological profile of elite Chinese female wrestlers. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27(9), 2374-2395.






Original Research