Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Physical Education Questionnaire (AISDPE): A two-component scale in Spanish



In Physical Education (PE), acceptance by and interaction with peers without disabilities is one of the most important factors in determining whether a student with a disability has a successful experience, such as to be perceived as members of the class, to interact with peers, and to feel part of the group. This study establishes the construct validity of a questionnaire in the Spanish language on attitudes toward the inclusion of students with disability in PE, according a model where attitudes are considered to be comprised of three components: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. Nine hundred and seventy-six PE students (491 girls and 485 boys) from eight public educational centers took part in this study. Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis procedures, a two-component model of attitude was confirmed. Therefore this questionnaire may be used for surveying attitudes and measuring attitudinal change of students within the Spanish school system.

Author Biography

Raúl Reina Vaillo, Miguel Hernández University

Full Professor


Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality and behavior. New York: Open University Press.

Bagozzi, R. P., Burnkrant, R. E. (1985). Attitude organization and the attitude-behavior relation: A reply to Dillon and Kumar. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(1), 47-57. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.49.1.33.

Blinde, E. M., & McCallister, S. G. (1998). Listening to the voices of students with physical disabilities: experiences in the physical education classroom. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 69(6), 64-68.

Block, M. E. (2007). A teacher’s guide to including students with disabilities in general physical education (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Block, M. E., Obrusnikova, I. (2007). Inclusion in physical education: a review of the literature from 1995–2005. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 24, 103-124.

Bossaert, G., Petry, K. (2013). Factorial validity of the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps Scale (CATCH). Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 1336-1345. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.01.007.

Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with Amos: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Campos, M. J., Ferreira, J. P., & Block, M. E. (2014). Influence of an awareness program on Portuguese middle and high school students' perceptions of peers with disabilities. Psychological Reports, 115(3), 897-912. doi: 10.2466/11.15.PR0.115c26z7.

Council of Europe (2013). Recommendation CM/Rec(2013)2 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on ensuring full inclusion of children and young persons with disabilities into society (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 16 October 2013 at the 1181st meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies). Retrieved April 24, 2016 from:

De Boer, A., Pijl, S. J., & Minnaert, A. (2010). Attitudes of parents towards inclusive education: A review of the literature. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 25(2), 165-181. doi: 10.1080/08856251003658694.

De Boer, A. A., Pijl, S. J., & Minnaert, A. (2011). Regular primary school teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education: A review of the literature. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(3), 331-353. doi: 10.1080/13603110903030089.

De Boer, A., Timmerman, M., Pijl, S. J., & Minnaert, A. (2012). The psychometric evaluation of a questionnaire to measure attitudes towards inclusive education. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 27(4), 573-589. doi: 10.1007/s10212-011-0096-z.

Dillon, W. R., Kumar, A. (1985). Attitude organization and the attitude-behavior relation: A critique of Bagozzi and Burnkrant's reanalysis of Fishbein and Azjen. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(1), 33-46. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.49.1.33.

Eagly, A. H., Chaiken, S. (1993). The nature of attitudes. In A. H. Eagle & S. Chaiken (Eds.), The psychology of attitudes (pp. 1-21). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

Economic and Social Council – Consejo Económico y Social (2004). La situación de las personas con discapacidad en España. Madrid: Author.

Goodwin, D. L., Watkinson, E. J. (2000). Inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with physical disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 17, 144-160.

Hogan, A., McLellan, L., & Bauman, A. (2000). Health promotion needs of young people with disabilities – A population study. Disability and Rehabilitation, 22, 352-357. doi: 10.1080/096382800296593.

Hopkins, W. G. (2000). Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Medicine, 30, 1-15. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200030010-00001.

Hu, L. T., Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118.

Hutzler, Y., Fliess, O., Chacham, A., & Van den Auweele, Y. (2002). Perspectives of children with physical disabilities on inclusion and empowerment: supporting and limiting factors. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 19, 300-317.

Janney, R., Snell, M. E. (2006). Social relationships and peer support (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Marsh, H. W., Muthén, B., Asparouhov, A., Lüdtke, O., Robitzsch, A., Morin, A. J. S., & Trautwein, U. (2009). Exploratory structural equation modeling, integrating CFA and EFA: Application to students' evaluations of university teaching. Structural Equation Modeling, 16, 439-476. doi: 10.1080/10705510903008220.

McDonald, R. P., Marsh, H. W. (1990). Choosing a multivariate model: Noncentrality and goodness of fit. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 247-255. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.247.

MECD (2014). Las cifras de la educación en España. Curso 2011-2012. Madrid, Spain: Author. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from:

Mulaik, S. A., James, L. R., Van Alstine, J., Bennet, N., Lind, S., & Stilwell, C. D. (1989). Evaluation of goodness-of-fit indices for structural equation models. Psychological Bulletin, 105(3), 430-445. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.105.3.430.

Obrusnikova, I., Dillon, S. R., & Block, M. E. (2011). Middle school student intentions to play with peers with disabilities in physical education: development and initial validation. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 23, 113-127. doi: 10.1007/s10882-010-9210-4.

Ocete-Calvo, C., Pérez-Tejero, J., & Coterón López, J. (2015). Propose of an educative intervention program for inclusion of children with disability in general physical education. RETOS-Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, 27, 140-145.

Odom, S. I., McConnell, S. R., & McEvoy, M. A. (1992). Social competence of young children with disabilities: Nature, development and intervention. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Özer, D., Nablant, S., Aǧlamis, E., Baran, F., Kaya Samut, P., Aktop, A., & Hutzler, Y. (2013). Physical education teachers' attitudes towards children with intellectual disability: the impact of time in service, gender, and previous acquaintance. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57(11), 1001-1013. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2012.01596.x.

Panagiotou, A. K., Evaggelinou, C., Doulkeridou, A., Mouratidou, K., & Koidou, E. (2008). Attitudes of 5th and 6th grade Greek students toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in physical education classes after a Paralympic education program. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 1(2), 31-43.

Pérez-Tejero, J., Ocete, C., Ortega-Vila, G., & Coterón, J. (2012). Design and implementation of an intervention program of inclusive sport and its effect on attitudes toward disability: The Inclusive Basketball Campus. International Journal of Sport Science, 29, 258-271. doi: 10.5232/ricyde2012.02905.

Place, K., Hodge, S. R. (2001). Social inclusion of students with physical disabilities in general physical education: a behavioral analysis. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 18, 389-404.

Reina, R., López, V., Jiménez, M., García-Calvo, T., & Hutzler, Y. (2011). Effects of awareness interventions on children’s attitudes toward peers with a visual impairment. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 34(3), 235-242. doi: 10.1097/MRR.0b013e3283487f49.

Rosenbaum, P. L., Armstrong, R.W., & King, S. M. (1986). Children’s attitudes toward disabled peers: A self-report measure. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 11, 517-530. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/11.4.517.

Triandis, H. C. (1971). Attitude and attitude change. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Vignes, C., Coley, N., Grandjean, H., Godeau, E., & Arnaud, C. (2008). Measuring children’s attitudes towards peers with disabilities: A review of instruments. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 50(3), 182-189. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.02032.x.

World Health Organization (2001). International Classification of Functioning. Disability and Health. Retrieved January 30, 2014 from






European Journal of Human Movement