Gaze behaviour differentiates elite from non-elite female soccer players: a 2D video projections exploratory study


  • Cassio Meira University of Sao Paulo, School of Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, Brazil.
  • Cintia Cortes University of Sao Paulo, School of Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, Brazil.
  • Daniela Corbetta University of Tennessee, Department of Psychology, United States of America.
  • Dalton Oliveira University of Sao Paulo, School of Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, Brazil.
  • Sergio Rodrigues Sao Paulo State University, Department of Physical Education, Brazil.
  • Bruno Silva University of Sao Paulo, School of Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, Brazil.
  • Marcelo Massa University of Sao Paulo, School of Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, Brazil.



visual search, visual perception, motor control, motor skill, football, women


The present study explored visual strategies employed by female soccer players of high, medium, and low levels of expertise. We used eye-tracking technology to examine how skill-based differences related to gaze behavior in 30 participants (10 in each group) who were required to respond physically to film images projected on a screen using soccer skills (penalty kick, dribbling, pass reception, and defensive cover). Data were collected from search rate (visual fixations duration and number, and number of fixated areas), percentage of viewing time, and variability of pupil diameter. Analyses revealed that female elite players engaged in more visual fixations, directed gaze toward more relevant areas of the scene, and showed less variability of pupil diameter, compared to their non-elite counterparts. Our findings seem to corroborate prior research which compared participants with different levels of expertise while performing soccer skills.


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