Goal difficulty level and perceived competence on volleyball serve learning
Keywords:Sport motor skills, Goal setting, Motor learning, Motivation
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the goal difficulty level on the volleyball serve learning and if the perceived sports competence mediates this process. Adolescent volunteers (N = 22, age = 14.0 ± 0.9 years) participated in this study performing the volleyball serve. Two experimental groups were formed: high difficult goal group (HDG; n = 11) and low difficult goal group (LDG; n = 11). Both groups performed 15 trials in the pretest, 160 trials in the acquisition throughout four days, and 15 trials in the retention test after 72 hours. Performance was measured by means of the target bull’s-eye accuracy of the volleyball serve. Comparing the two groups' performance accuracy and consistency on pretest and retention tests was run through two-way ANOVA and ANCOVA (2 Groups x 2 Blocks). The results showed high goal led to greater performance accuracy in the retention than the lower goal, with a very large effect size. The HDG had higher accuracy in the retention test than the pretest (p < .001), while the LDG had no improvement. ANCOVA detected significant between the covariate perceived sport competence and tests. The effect size magnitude of the high goal difficulty in the serve accuracy was higher when adjusted by perceived sports competence. This finding indicates that perceived sports competence could maximize goal difficulty effectiveness. In conclusion, the goal with high difficulty is more effective for volleyball serve learning than low difficulty, and the perceived sports competence seems to moderate the learning process.
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261–271. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1681
Bandeira, D. R., Arteche, A. X., & Reppold, C. T. (2008). Escala de autopercepção de harter para adolescentes: Um estudo de validação. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 24, 341–345. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-37722008000300010
Bar-Eli, M., Tenenbaum, G., Pie, J. S., Btesh, Y., & Almog, A. (1997). Effect of goal difficulty, goal specificity and duration of practice time intervals on muscular endurance performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15, 125–135. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404197367407
Boyce, B. A., Wayda, V. K., Johnston, T., & Bunker, L. K. (2001). The effects of three types of goal setting conditions on tennis performance: a field-based study. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 20(2), 188–200. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.20.2.188
Burton, D. (1994). Goal setting in sports. In R. N. Singer, M. Murphey, & L. K. Tennant (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology (Macmillan, pp. 467–491).
Carvalhais, C. K. A., Silva, S. L., Tani, G., & Corrêa, U. C. (2021). The effects of perceived competence and self-controlled goal setting on motor learning. Human Movement, 22(4), 56-67. https://doi.org/10.5144/hm.2021.103290
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Erlbaum.
Corrêa, U. C., & Souza Jr, O. P. (2009). Effects of goal difficulty and temporality in motor skill acquisition using the Bachman ladder. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 109(3), 817–823. https://doi.org/10.2466/PMS.109.3.817-823
Corrêa, U. C., Souza Jr, O. P., & Santos, S. (2006). Goal setting in acquisition of a volleyball skill late in motor learning. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 103(1), 273–278. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.103.1.273-278
Dutra, L. N., Benda, R. N., Lage, G. M., & Ugrinowitsch, H. (2017). Difficult group goal improves serve reception of experienced volleyball players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 12(2), 276–285. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2017.122.04
Fialho, J. V. A. P., Benda, R. N., & Ugrinowitsch, H. (2006). The contextual interference effect in a serve skill acquisition with experienced players. Journal of Human Human Movement Studies, 50(1), 65–78.
Fox, K. R., & Corbin, C. B. (1989). The physical self-perception profile: Development and preliminary validation. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11(4), 408–430. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.11.4.408
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Pearson Education.
Harter, S. (1999). The construction of the self: A developmental perspective (1st ed.). Guilford Press.
Harter, S. (2012). The Construction of the Self: Developmental and Sociocultural Foundations (2nd ed.). Guilford Press.
Iwatsuki, T., & Regis, C. J. (2020). Relatively easy criteria for success enhances motor learning by altering perceived competence. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 128(2), 900-911. https://doi: 10.1177/0031512520981237
Kyllo, L. B., & Landers, D. M. (1995). Goal setting in sport and exercise: A research synthesis to resolve the controversy. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17(2), 117–137. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.17.2.117
Lane, A., & Streeter, B. (2003). The effectiveness of goal setting as a strategy to improve basketball shooting performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 34(2), 138–150.
Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. a. (2007). New developments in and directions for goal-setting research. European Psychologist, 12(4), 290–300. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040.12.4.290
Locke, E. A. (1991). Problems with goal-setting research in sports — and their solution. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 8(3), 311–317. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.13.3.311
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1985). The application of goal setting to sports. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7, 205–222. https://doi.org/10.1123/JSP.7.3.205
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(5), 265–268. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2006.00449.x
Marinho, N. F. S., Gomes, T. V. B., Fonseca, F. S., Fialho, J. V. A. P., Benda, R. N., & Ugrinowitsch, H. (2009). Estabelecimento de metas impostas pelo experimentador e autoestabelecidas: efeitos na aprendizagem do arremesso de dardo de salão. Revista Da Educação Física/UEM, 20(4), 509–517. https://doi.org/10.4025/reveducfis.v20i3.6682
Mellalieu, S. D., Hanton, S., & M, O. (2006). The effects of goal setting on rugby performance s. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39(2), 257–261. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2006.36-05
Mooney, R. P., & Mutrie, N. (2000). The effects of goal specificity and goal difficulty on the performance of badminton skills in children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 12(3), 270–283. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.12.3.270
Ong, N. T., Hawke, J., & Hodges, N. J. (2019). Target size manipulations affect error-processing duration and success perceptions but not behavioural indices of learning. Brain Science, 9(5), 119. doi: 10.3390/brainsci9050119
Rosenthal, J. A. (1996). Qualitative descriptors of strength of association and effect size. Journal of Social Service Research, 21(4), 37–59. https://doi.org/10.1300/J079v21n04_02
Schmidt, R. A., & Lee, T. D. (2005). Aprendizagem e Performance Motora (4th ed.). Human Kinetics.
Tenenbaum, G., Bar-Eli, M., & Yaaron, M. (1999). The dynamics of goal-setting: Interactive effects of goal difficulty, goal specificity and duration of practice time intervals. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 30, 325-338.
Tenenbaum, G., Pinchas, S., Elbaz, G., Bar-eli, M., & Weinberg, R. (1991). Effect of goal proximity and goal specificity on muscular endurance performance: A replication and extension. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 13(2), 174–187. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.13.2.174
Wack, S. R., Crosland, K. a, & Miltenberger, R. G. (2014). Using goal setting and feedback to increase weekly running distance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47(1), 181–185. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.108
Wagnsson, S., Lindwall, M., & Gustafsson, H. (2014). Participation in organized sport and self-esteem across adolescence: The mediating role of perceived sport competence. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 36(6), 584–594. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2013-0137.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.This journal is covered under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). The rights of printing and reproduction by any way and means are the property of the European Journal of Human Movement, and by extension of each one of the authors of the articles.